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Type of port

Production Port A production port's main feature is that plant manufacturers are located in the direct proximity of the port or on the port premises where they manufacture wind turbine components, e.g. tower segments, nacelles, hubs, rotor blades, foundations and sea cables. Each type of component generally has its own production plant, so that complete wind turbines are not necessarily manufactured on one and the same production location but, where necessary, individual elements are manufactured separately.
Installation Port In an installation port the offshore wind turbines are pre-assembled before being shipped to the offshore wind farm where they are installed. The basic requirements of an installation port are sufficient available storage and assembling areas (approx. 5 ha – 15 ha per wind farm) as well as access to the hinterland capable of handling heavy loads, quay areas and loading capacities (single weight of 600 t – 1,000 t). A sufficient water depth of 8m (depending on the type of vessel) is necessary in the port basin waterside. Additionally, the ground bearing capacity must allow for the jacking-up of installation vessels.
Immediate Support Port The short distance to the wind farms characterises the immediate support ports which form the base for spontaneous and short-notice repairs. Operating resources, tools and small components are held available in immediate support ports.
Service Port Service ports serve to supply the wind farms and the immediate support ports. This primarily involves regular and scheduled transportation. Ports on the mainland coast generally come into consideration as supply locations. Sufficient operating resources, tools, smaller and medium-sized components are stored in the supply ports. Additionally, capacities for staff, office space and recreation rooms are required.
Port of Transshipment In the port of transshipment or import and export port wind turbine components are transshipped. The transshipped components are either loaded onto the carrier vessel (export) or unloaded from the arriving vessel (import). An import and export port requires sufficient storage areas for interim storage of the components as well as quay areas and loading capacities capable of handling heavy loads for the transshipment activities. Pre-carriage and on-carriage of the components to/from the port are mostly carried out by truck, therefore hinterland access capable of handling heavy loads as well as direct accessibility is required.
R&D-Location R & D locations and test locations serve to further develop wind power technology. Apart from the turbine manufacturers there are also other institutions involved in the research and development of individual components. The research activities are carried out by in-house research and development centres, external commercial providers or colleges of further education and state research institutes. Newly developed wind turbines are installed in the test locations in order to gain experience under normal operating conditions. Offshore wind turbines are also mostly tested on land. Staff are trained in the training and instruction facilities to carry out assignments on the wind turbines, especially offshore assignments.
Port of Refuge A port of refuge provides emergency berths as a buffer function in adverse weather as well as providing space for vessels from the construction site seeking shelter. It is characterised by large, sheltered waterside areas.

Commercial area

not less than ha

Emden Papenburg Wilhelmshaven Nordenham Brake Cuxhaven Stade Norddeich

The electric power supply of the future will be defined among other things by the use of offshore wind power. The seaports of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen) provide strategic hubs for the installation and subsequent maintenance and supply of the offshore wind power farms in the North Sea. The seaport locations in Lower Saxony are a reliable partner of the wind energy branch, providing ample infrastructure capable of handling heavy loads as well as innovative logistics and service concepts.

The production of the offshore components in close proximity to the ports ensures short transport routes by land thus creating a potential to save both costs and time. In the Lower Saxon seaports there are extensive potential areas available for companies and suppliers of the onshore and offshore branch to settle.